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It also records the site of an Anglo-Saxon church in Tombland, the site of the Saxon market place and the later Norman cathedral.
Norwich continued to be a major centre for trade, the River Wensum being a convenient export route to the River Yare and Great Yarmouth, which served as the port for Norwich.
The chief building material for the Cathedral was limestone, imported from Caen in Normandy.
Around this time, the city was made a county corporate and became the seat of one of the most densely populated and prosperous counties of England. Hand-in-hand with the wool industry, this key religious centre experienced a Reformation significantly different to other parts of England.Unusually in England, it divided the city and appears to have linked Protestantism with the plight of the urban poor.In the case of Norwich this process was underscored later by the arrival of Dutch and Flemish "Strangers" fleeing persecution from the Catholics and eventually numbering as many as one third of the city's population.Herbert de Losinga then moved his See there to what became the cathedral church for the Diocese of Norwich. Norwich received a royal charter from Henry II in 1158, and another one from Richard the Lionheart in 1194.Following a riot in the city in 1274, Norwich has the distinction of being the only complete English city to be excommunicated by the Pope.
In 1216, the castle fell to Louis, Dauphin of France and Hildebrand's Hospital was founded, followed ten years later by the Franciscan Friary and Dominican Friary. It has the distinction of being the only English city ever to be excommunicated, following a riot between citizens and monks in 1274. Wool made England rich, and the staple port of Norwich "in her state doth stand With towns of high'st regard the fourth of all the land", as Michael Drayton noted in Poly-Olbion (1612).